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Socioeconomic factors to improve production and marketing of the pecan nut in the Comarca Lagunera. In the Comarca Lagunera 9 ha have been established with pecan walnut, with the region being the third in national importance. The studies of socioeconomic type in walnut in Mexico are mainly descriptive, studies that analyze the relationships between the different variables of the crop that allow making recommendations to boost their growth are required.
The objective of this work was to analyze the relationship between various socioeconomic factors such as garden size, training and financing with variables such as yields, price, gross income, infrastructure for harvesting and sale of selected nuts. To obtain the information, a survey was applied during to a sample of 27 orchards distributed throughout the region.
The data were analyzed by Analysis of Variance of a factor to compare the means of the groups: orchards that receive vs those that do not receive training, orchards that receive vs those that do not receive financing; and orchards of up to three hectares vs. Differences were found in variables such as yields per hectare, price of walnut, sale of selected walnut, infrastructure for commercialization and income. To improve the situation of the walnut orchards in the Comarca Lagunera, it is recommended to strengthen the training and financing, particularly of the small producers and the importance of the size of the orchard, to look for forms of organization to achieve economies of scale in the production and commercialization of the pecan nut in the Comarca Lagunera.
The pecan nut Carya illinoensis Koch. For many years, walnut was one of the main foods of American Indians Tait, It is currently used to make a wide variety of products such as sweets, jams, pies, cakes, cookies, ice cream, snow, ingredient for gourmet cooking and traditional cuisine COMENUEZ, The world production of pecan nuts in the cycle was t peeled base.
In Mexico, the states of Chihuahua, Sonora, Coahuila and Durango stand out in nut production with relative shares of Faced with the growing demand for walnuts at the global level promoted by China and the increased competition from producer states in Mexico and other countries, it is necessary to improve the production of the Comarca Lagunera and maintain the competitiveness of the region.
However, there are no studies that indicate the factors that need to be strengthened to boost production in the region. It is based on the hypothesis that there are several socioeconomic factors such as training, financing and the size of the garden that directly impact variables such as yields, price, gross income, infrastructure for harvesting and marketing.
The Comarca Lagunera, composed of ten municipalities in the northeast of the state of Durango and five in the southwest of the state of Coahuila, contributes 9. The first plantations of the walnut in the Comarca Lagunera were established in and the introduced varieties were Western, Wichita, Burkett, San Saba improved, Stuart, Barton and Mahan, predominating the first two Medina and Cano, Despite its importance, in Mexico there is very little socioeconomic research in this crop and what exists is a descriptive type.
Some are characterization studies of producers Orona et al. It is necessary to carry out inferential explanatory studies that allow identifying factors that are related to variables such as income, income, infrastructure and marketing. In agriculture, as in other economic activities, technological developments are constantly emerging that allow increasing productivity.
One way to get these developments to farmers is training. According to Nakano et al. Given that the training has a high cost, the challenge for these authors is to choose the best method at the lowest cost to bring the knowledge to farmers Nakano et al.
Roco et al. For their part, Pan and Zhang state that training in the use of fertilizers is a prerequisite for their scientific management, avoiding excessive applications.
Baloch and Thapa assert that the increase in yields depends on many factors, but in particular training increases skills to improve productivity. They affirm that in addition to the extension there are other factors that influence the yields, highlighting the availability of financing to acquire the inputs, availability of labor and the size of the farm. Similarly, Wossen et al. The lack of financing is one of the main limitations for the modernization of agriculture, Juarez et al.
Guirkinger and Trivelli ; Cieza argue that limitations in financing hinder the development of agriculture. On the other hand, Chen et al. In that same sense, Trzeciak-Duval indicates that for the banking sector to have a greater participation in the economy, it requires favorable macroeconomic conditions, highlighting stability in inflation and in the currency. Tiffen mentions that there is also the problem of the culture of non-payment, which is coupled with the absence of incentives for private banks to finance agriculture.
Kopparthiy and Kagabo argue that access to credit is necessary to acquire inputs, as a way to increase productivity and eradicate poverty. Another factor of importance in the determination of yields and income is the size of the farm, in our case the size of the garden. Campos and Chaves assert that some of the weaknesses of the agrarian sector are the dispersion of supply and the small size of farms. Therefore, they propose the figure of cooperatives in order to concentrate production and obtain economies of scale.
Van et al. In this same sense Sheng et al. As can be seen, it has been found in various countries and crops that the variables of training, financing and scale of production have an influence on the results of agricultural enterprises. However, in Mexico, in the cultivation of walnut, the existing studies do not address these aspects beyond the descriptive analysis. The objective of this work was to analyze the relationship of various socioeconomic factors such as training, financing and the size of the garden and its relationship with variables such as yields, price, gross income and infrastructure in the cultivation of walnut and propose measures of public policy to encourage its growth.
It is composed of ten municipalities of the Northeast region of the state of Durango and five of the southwest of the state of Coahuila. It is located at an average altitude of 1 meters above sea level, a dry desert climate or warm steppe with summer rains and cool winters; the average annual rainfall is mm and the average temperature is To obtain the information, a survey was applied in to a random sample of 27 gardens distributed in the municipalities of Francisco I.
The questionnaire was composed of 23 questions, divided into the following blocks: general characteristics of the garden, technological aspects of the management of the garden, training received, infrastructure available, financing for production and marketing, organization of producers and marketing.
Simple random sampling Fuller, was used to calculate the sample. The calculation of the sample was 21 questionnaires; however, 27 were applied to improve the level of precision of the results. The data were analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance. The following factors were used as factors: 1 training receives vs. In the latter case, two strata were managed: a up to three hectares; and b more than three hectares. These strata are the ones that, according to field extension technicians and inferential statistics, showed that they made the difference between the variables analyzed.
Of the 27 questionnaires applied, 16 went to orchards of up to three hectares and 11 to orchards of more than 3 ha. According to Lind et al. The calculations were made in the statistical package SPSS version According to the theory, variables such as training, financing and the size of the garden are determining factors for aspects such as yield, sale price, marketing method, infrastructure and income, among others.
The results of the analysis for the walnut in the Comarca Lagunera are presented below. Table 1 shows the results of the analysis of variance according to the training factor. It should be mentioned that the training received by the small producers was basically in pests by technicians of the Local Board of Plant Health, while the medium and large producers hired private technical assistance that included not only pests but also irrigation, pruning, fertilization, classification of the nut and mechanical harvest.
In the cases of income and income, those that received training have higher values but without significance derived mainly from the high variability in the variables. In the case of yields, the producers who received training exceeded by kg ha -1 those who did not receive it and although the difference was not significant, that amount represents almost a third of the average yield of a typical orchard in the region.
In general, the results coincide with several authors who highlight the importance of training. Wossen et al. Nakano et al. Orona et al. These results highlight the importance of training for the process of technology adoption and income improvement. However, in this work it was found that training not only influences the adoption of field technological practices, but also variables such as the sale of selected nuts and the acquisition of harvesting tools Table 1.
Table 2 shows the comparison of means of selected variables for those producers that received or not financed. These results are consistent with what is expected since a producer with resources is able to acquire and timely apply the fertilizers and supplies necessary for the proper development of walnut trees.
These results coincide with Dong et al. Kopparthiand and Kagabo found a high correlation between those producers who had access to financing and their levels of production and income. Cervantes et al. They found that of the orchards between 1 and 10 ha, only 9.
In the Table 3 shows the comparisons of means of different variables according to the garden size factor. In general, the larger garden size, the prices, the selected nut sale and the infrastructure improve. The above coincides with Cervantes et al. Campos and Chaves ; Ayala et al. Also Abate et al.
Some authors such as Sheng et al. According to Orona et al. Receiving training is a significant factor in the variables of sales price, proportion of walnut sold in bulk and infrastructure for marketing.
In the cases of the means of yield and income per hectare, they were also higher for orchards that received training, although without being significant, but of economic importance for the producers. The most important factor was financing. In four of the five contrast variables, highly significant statistical differences were found, highlighting sufficient and timely resources to have a better management of the orchard, which in this case was reflected in a yield that almost doubles that of those orchards without financing.
The orchards that received financing presented higher revenues, better infrastructure and higher percentage of walnut sold in a selected way. The orchards of size superior to 3 has, registered superior values in the sale price, the proportion of walnut commercialized in bulk of form selected and the infrastructure for commercialization.
The means of yield and income per hectare were also higher for large orchards, although without being statistically significant. The relevance of the size of the orchard makes it possible to recommend to the small ones, who need to organize themselves to achieve economies of scale, to make consolidated purchases of inputs and to increase the negotiation capacity in the sale of walnuts.
The results obtained from the orchards that received training and financing make it possible to recommend to public institutions and producer organizations to strongly promote training and obtaining financing, especially for small producers, which will result in higher nut yields, an increase in the sale price and in better income for the producers.
Abate, G. Annals Public Cooperative Econ. Baloch, M. Saudi Soc. Campos, C. El papel de las cooperativas en la crisis agraria. Cuadernos de Desarrollo Rural. Cervantes, V.
Douglas A. Lind
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SOILS AS NATURAL REACTORS FOR SWINE WASTEWATER TREATMENT