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In electronic logic circuits , a pull-up resistor or pull-down resistor is a resistor used to ensure a known state for a signal. It is typically used in combination with components such as switches and transistors , which physically interrupt the connection of subsequent components to ground or to V CC. When the switch is closed, it creates a direct connection to ground or V CC , but when the switch is open, the rest of the circuit would be left floating i.
For a switch that connects to ground, a pull-up resistor ensures a well-defined voltage i. V CC , or logical high across the remainder of the circuit when the switch is open. Conversely, for a switch that connects to V CC , a pull-down resistor ensures a well-defined ground voltage i.
An open switch is not equivalent to a component with infinite impedance, since in the former case, the stationary voltage in any loop in which it is involved can no longer be determined by Kirchhoff's laws. Consequently, the voltages across those critical components such as the logic gate in the example on the right which are only in loops involving the open switch are undefined, too.
A pull-up resistor effectively establishes an additional loop over the critical components, ensuring that the voltage is well-defined even when the switch is open. For a pull-up resistor to only serve this one purpose and not interfere with the circuit otherwise, a resistor with an appropriate amount of resistance must be used. For this, it is assumed that the critical components have infinite or sufficiently high impedance , which is guaranteed for example for logic gates made from FETs.
In this case, when the switch is open, the voltage across a pull-up resistor with sufficiently low impedance vanishes to the effect that it looks like a wire to V CC.
On the other hand, when the switch is closed, the pull-up resistor must have sufficiently high impedance in comparison to the closed switch to not affect the connection to ground. Together, these two conditions can be used to derive an appropriate value for the impedance of the pull-up resistor but usually, only a lower bound is derived assuming that the critical components do indeed have infinite impedance. A resistor with low resistance relative to the circuit it's in is often called a "strong" pull-up or pull-down; when the circuit is open, it will pull the output high or low very quickly just as the voltage changes in an RC circuit , but will draw more current.
A resistor with relatively high resistance is called a "weak" pull-up or pull-down; when the circuit is open, it will pull the output high or low more slowly, but will draw less current. A pull-up resistor may be used when interfacing logic gates to inputs.
For example, an input signal may be pulled by a resistor, then a switch or jumper strap can be used to connect that input to ground. This can be used for configuration information, to select options or for troubleshooting of a device. Pull-up resistors may be used at logic outputs where the logic device cannot source current such as open-collector TTL logic devices. Such outputs are used for driving external devices, for a wired-OR function in combinational logic , or for a simple way of driving a logic bus with multiple devices connected to it.
Pull-up resistors may be discrete devices mounted on the same circuit board as the logic devices. Many microcontrollers intended for embedded control applications have internal, programmable pull-up resistors for logic inputs so that minimal external components are needed.
Some disadvantages of pull-up resistors are the extra power consumed when current is drawn through the resistor and the reduced speed of a pull-up compared to an active current source. Certain logic families are susceptible to power supply transients introduced into logic inputs through pull-up resistors, which may force the use of a separate filtered power source for the pull-ups. Pull-down resistors can be safely used with CMOS logic gates because the inputs are voltage-controlled. TTL logic inputs that are left un-connected inherently float high, and require a much lower valued pull-down resistor to force the input low.
For that reason, pull-up resistors are preferred in TTL circuits. For CMOS and MOS logic, much higher values of resistor can be used, several thousand to a million ohms, since the required leakage current at a logic input is small. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article includes a list of references , but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations.
In electronic logic circuits , a pull-up resistor or pull-down resistor is a resistor used to ensure a known state for a signal. It is typically used in combination with components such as switches and transistors , which physically interrupt the connection of subsequent components to ground or to V CC. When the switch is closed, it creates a direct connection to ground or V CC , but when the switch is open, the rest of the circuit would be left floating i. For a switch that connects to ground, a pull-up resistor ensures a well-defined voltage i. V CC , or logical high across the remainder of the circuit when the switch is open.
Resistor Network - 10K Ohm (6-pin bussed)