BATTLE OF AIN JALUT PDF

The battle marked the high-water point of Mongol conquests , and was the first time a Mongol advance had ever been permanently beaten back in direct combat on the battlefield. After previous battlefield defeats, the Mongols had always returned and avenged their loss, ultimately defeating their enemies. The Battle of Ain Jalut marked the first time they were unable to do so. The Mongol Ilkhanate leader Hulagu Khan was not able to advance into Egypt , and the Khanate he established in Persia was only able to defeat the Mamluks once in subsequent expeditions, briefly reoccupying Syria and parts of Galilee for a few months in To lead the task of subduing the nations of the West, he selected his brother, another of Genghis Khan's grandsons, Hulagu Khan. Assembling the army took five years, and it was not until that Hulagu was prepared to begin the invasions.

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Questions or concerns? Interested in participating in the Publishing Partner Program? Let us know. The two powers then prepared for battle. The Mongol army contained a sizable group of Syrian warriors, as well as Christian Georgian and Armenian troops. The two armies were roughly matched in numbers, but the Mamluks had one great advantage: one of their generals, Baybars , was familiar with the terrain because he had been a fugitive in the area earlier in his life.

Ked-Buqa fell for the trick and ordered an advance; his army poured forward in pursuit only to be ambushed by the main Mamluk army in the hills. Then the Mamluks attacked from all sides, unleashing their cavalry and a heavy storm of arrows, but the Mongols fought with typical ferocity and succeeded in turning and breaking the left wing of the Mamluk army.

Contemporary accounts report that Mamluk sultan Qutuz threw down his helmet and urged his men forward to fight in the name of Islam, and that after this inspiring speech the Mamluks began to gain the upper hand. Then Mongol general Ked-Buqa was killed in battle- or, according to one account, was taken prisoner by the Mamluks and, after he declared defiantly that the khan would inflict savage revenge for this defeat, was beheaded on the battlefield. Finally, the Mongols turned and began to retreat, heading for Beisan , eight miles 13 km away.

The Mamluks pursued them all the way. At Beisan, the Mongols turned to fight once more, but were heavily defeated. Subsequently, General Baybars formed a conspiracy against Qutuz, who was murdered as he made his way back to Cairo. Baybars seized power for himself. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Written By: Charles Phillips.

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Battle of Ain Jalut

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Today in Middle Eastern History: the Battle of Ayn Jalut (1260)

At times in Asian history, circumstances have conspired to bring seemingly unlikely combatants into conflict with one another. One example is the Battle of Talas River A. Another is the Battle of Ayn Jalut, where in the seemingly unstoppable Mongol hordes ran up against the Mamluk warrior-slave army of Egypt. Each Khan sought to expand his own portion of the empire through further conquests.

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The Battle of Ayn Jalut

In , the Mongols were near the height of their power and reach, particularly in the Middle East. With the empire simultaneously expanding into eastern Europe and southern China, it must have seemed like the Mongols would go on expanding until they ruled the entire world. By September his armies were in Syria, having taken Aleppo and Damascus, and were poised to push south into Egypt. Two things conspired to ultimately stop the seemingly unstoppable Mongol advance. Overnight, Ayyubid weakness was replaced by Mamluk strength.

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THE BATTLE OF AIN JALUT

Ilkhanate Mongol Empire. The battle marked the extent of Mongol conquests , and was the first time a Mongol advance had ever been permanently beaten back in direct combat on the battlefield. To lead the task of subduing the nations in the West, he selected his brother, another of Genghis Khan's grandsons, Hulagu Khan. Assembling the army took five years, and it was not until that Hulagu was prepared to begin the invasions. Operating from the Mongol base in Persia , Hulagu proceeded south.

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