BLASTOCERUS DICHOTOMUS PDF

Severe population decline of marsh deer, Blastocerus dichotomus Cetartiodactyla: Cervidae , a threatened species, caused by flooding related to a hydroelectric power plant. Duarte III. Via de Acesso Prof. Balancing power production and environmental conservation can be problematic. A fixed-wing, flat window aircraft was used to survey study transects.

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The marsh deer occurs from savanna patches along the southern margins of Amazonian Peru and Brazil south through northeastern Argentina. While formerly known in Uruguay as well, it is probably now extinct there. The major distributional area is defined by the Paraguay and Parana river basins. Marsh deer prefer marshy, swampy ground with standing water and dense vegetation. They also utilize flooded savannas during the wet season, but stay close to dense stands of reeds or similar vegetation near permanent water during the dry season.

Surrounding mountainous terrain may also be favorable, but this may be an artifact of human hunting pressure as access is probably most difficult in mountainous areas Mares et al. Blastocerus dichotomus is the largest South American deer, recognizable in part by its large multitined antlers of eight to ten points when mature.

Head-body length is usually just under two meters, with shoulder height from 1. The pelage is reddish brown in the summer, turning a darker brown in the winter. The tail is reddish orange, bushy, and 10 to 15 cm in length. Marsh deer have large feet with an elastic membrane between the hooves, which may help to keep them from sinking in the mud of their preferred marshy habitat.

Marsh deer have white eye rings and borders of the ears Mares et al. Fawns are born singly, with mature coloration no spots. Males do not shed their antlers at any particular time of the year, and may retain them almost two years. Rut usually occurs, however, in October and November, but the breeding season may not be fixed, and males do not seem to be particularly aggressive to each other. Newborn fawns are reported from May to September, as well as from September to November.

The gestation period may be as long as a year Whitehead , Pinder , Redford and Eisenberg , Mares et al. Behavioral data for B. Some populations have been reported to be diurnal or nocturnal, depending on season and hunting pressure. Marsh deer are often solitary or in small groups of two to five, with larger groups occasionally observed. They are widely scattered during the wet season, with large home ranges, but concentrated near water during the dry season.

Males have larger home ranges than females. Mean densities dry and flood season in the Parana River Basin were 0. Marsh deer are herbivorous with diets comparable to other species of deer, although marsh deer consume mainly aquatic and riparian vegetation. Stomach analyses found that water lily and other leaves, grass, and browse were consumed. Marsh deer are valuable game animals, hunted for meat and sport Roig No negative impacts of B.

Wild ungulates sometimes compete with livestock for forage, and can serve as disease reservoirs, but the marsh deer's preference for wetland habitat may limit contact with some types of domestic livestock. Current numbers of deer are so low that negative impacts are very unlikely. Marsh deer have suffered from uncontrolled hunting and habitat destruction, resulting in small, greatly-fragmented populations.

Current hydraulic projects such as the proposed Hidrovia project on the Paraguay and Parana rivers threaten much of what remains of the habitat. One area, threatened with inundation in by a planned hydroelectric plant on the Parana River, contained individuals making it the second largest population in Brazil.

Marsh deer populations have also been reduced by cattle diseases, to which they are quite susceptible. Once common in Argentina, only a few hundred individuals may remain.

Blastocerus dichotomus has been apparently extirpated in Uruguay Mares et al. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a now extinct synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities.

Convergent in birds. For example: antlers, elongated tails, special spurs. A terrestrial biome. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy.

Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia. A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome. Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.

Duarte, J. Cytogenetic analysis of the marsh deer, Blastocerus dichotomus Mammalia, Cervidae. Revista Brasileira de Genetica , Mello, L. Pleistocene cervids from the northeastern region of Brazil.. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias , Mares, M. Ojeda, R. Guide to the mammals of the Salta Province, Argentina.

Survey of broad-snouted Caiman latirostris, marsh deer Blastocerus dichotomus and capybara Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris in the area to be inundated by Porto Primavera Dam, Brazil. Biological Conservation , Pinder, L. Papeis Avulsos de Zoologia Sao Paulo , Marsh deer Blastocerus dichotomus population estimate in the Parana River, Brazil.

Blastocerus dichotomus. Mammalian Species , Quintana, R. Bo, J. Merler, P. Minotti, A. Use and situation of wildlife in the lower delta of the Parana River. Iherinigia Serie Zoologia , Redford, K. Mammals of the neotropics Vol. Roig, V. Desertification and distribution of mammals in the Southern Cone of South America.

Latin American mammalogy: history, biodiversity, conservation. Roxo, E. Survey on incidence of brucellosis in Pantanal deer, in Brazil.. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia , 48 1 : Whitehead, K. Deer of the world. Help us improve the site by taking our survey. To cite this page: Epps, C. Disclaimer: The Animal Diversity Web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students.

ADW doesn't cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts.

While ADW staff and contributors provide references to books and websites that we believe are reputable, we cannot necessarily endorse the contents of references beyond our control. Blastocerus dichotomus marsh deer Facebook. Geographic Range The marsh deer occurs from savanna patches along the southern margins of Amazonian Peru and Brazil south through northeastern Argentina. Biogeographic Regions neotropical native Habitat Marsh deer prefer marshy, swampy ground with standing water and dense vegetation.

Terrestrial Biomes savanna or grassland Aquatic Biomes rivers and streams Physical Description Blastocerus dichotomus is the largest South American deer, recognizable in part by its large multitined antlers of eight to ten points when mature.

Other Physical Features endothermic bilateral symmetry Sexual Dimorphism ornamentation Range mass 89 to kg Key Behaviors motile Communication and Perception Perception Channels tactile chemical Food Habits Marsh deer are herbivorous with diets comparable to other species of deer, although marsh deer consume mainly aquatic and riparian vegetation.

Economic Importance for Humans: Positive Marsh deer are valuable game animals, hunted for meat and sport Roig Conservation Status Marsh deer have suffered from uncontrolled hunting and habitat destruction, resulting in small, greatly-fragmented populations. Marsh deer have 66 chromosomes Duarte and Giannoni Glossary Neotropical living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America.

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Marsh deer

The marsh deer occurs from savanna patches along the southern margins of Amazonian Peru and Brazil south through northeastern Argentina. While formerly known in Uruguay as well, it is probably now extinct there. The major distributional area is defined by the Paraguay and Parana river basins. Marsh deer prefer marshy, swampy ground with standing water and dense vegetation. They also utilize flooded savannas during the wet season, but stay close to dense stands of reeds or similar vegetation near permanent water during the dry season. Surrounding mountainous terrain may also be favorable, but this may be an artifact of human hunting pressure as access is probably most difficult in mountainous areas Mares et al. Blastocerus dichotomus is the largest South American deer, recognizable in part by its large multitined antlers of eight to ten points when mature.

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Formerly found in much of tropical and subtropical South America, it ranged east of the Andes , south from the Amazon rainforest , west of the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest and north of the Argentinian Pampa. The latter half of its scientific name refers to the forked antlers. Marsh deer resemble the North American mule deer or blacktail deer. They possess very large ears lined with white hairs, red-gold to tawny brown fur, blackish eyes and long dark legs. The hair turns darker during winter. There are also white marks on the hips and around the eyes. The legs are black below the tarsal as is the muzzle.

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