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From the time of the Renaissance when engineers began to be spoken of until the specialization of the branches of engineering which took place in the 18th century, history has told us a lot about the uses these professionals made of drawing. Some fragments of this history are related in these pages, which are the result of a research project that seemed to be necessary because drawing was involved in all the studies carried out on the history of engineering in the Modern Age.
This book is the result of the project. The collection Juanelo Turriano Lectures on the history of engineering is the ideal vehicle for publishing the results of this research, previously in the original language and now in English.
From Stonecutting to Descriptive Geometry. Ordinance of Engineers and the Academy of Mathematics Designing the Bastion against the Turks: Sicily and Malta Defending a Border. Drawing skills were not always imperative when the need was urgent, and we imagine that the drawings of the Flemish youth who was measuring the walls were not very good, but they would have given invaluable information to the English enemy.
Thus for example, when Giovan Antonio Nobile was designated Chief Engineer of the kingdom of Sicily in , he had to look in all the places which were going to be fortified for painters who were masters of colour and drawing, to make the plans of the projected fortifications and the territory in which they were to be built. The engineers drew, but these drawings had to be seen, analyzed, debated and decisions on the execution of the projects had to be made; and this was the job of the king and his counsellors.
We know that drawing and the science of fortification were part of the education of princes and noblemen, and even emperors, as Francisco de Holanda reminds us when talking of Charles V and Maximilian. And the fact is that territories and fortifications, explained and represented in maps, with chorography and drawings, only existed if there was an image with which to recognize and travel through the dominions. This also applied to the cities at war, and at the beginning of the 18th century it was specified that a general had to have the drawn plan of the city he was going to besiege, but also the surrounding terrain with its hills, valleys, rivers, woods, swamps and roads by which help could come.
The description of the frontiers, of necessity secret, was one of the responsibilities of the engineers, and their drawings constitute an important heritage for understanding the territories as they were then and their transformation, which is why one part of this book is devoted to these frontiers.
The permeability between architecture and engineering throughout the three centuries studied, has led us to devote another section to the study of a professional differentiation which many testimonies refute. This Leonardo Turriano, who was present like a modern day Pliny at the. With time Spanish historiography gradually included these master builders or master craftsmen in the history of architecture, but it did not do so in the same way with the military, hydrological, bridges and road engineers, at times stripped of their engineering profession when they entered into the history of architecture.
Other topics presented include how the experience of the French monarchy introduces a point of comparison with the Spanish monarchy, the relation of these drawings with the history of science, the development of the representation systems used and scientific instruments, the role of the academies, or the use of these drawings in dealing with the fortified heritage.
Stories of power, the education of the prince, the secret character of these images, war, engineering, science and the codification of knowledge, resound in its pages. The interdisciplinary character of the project, in the frame work of which this book was created, reflects the changes which have for some time now been occurring in the study of images.
This break with a specialization which we have inherited, leads us to trust that these pages will serve as a starting point for future research. It then describes design methods by analysing layouts, dimensional and trigonometric tables and conceptual maxims or rules and the respective results. Lastly, both mock-up and two-dimensional representation systems are reviewed.
Analysing and cross-referencing the findings for each of the aforementioned facets afford a fuller understanding of the nature of sixteenth- through eighteenth-century fortification design. Initially associated with natural determinants, such design was transformed in Baroque construction into the repetition of geometric prototypes, only to revert to an inductive, albeit regulated, approach in the transition to neo-classicism.
The design and construction instruments used by sixteenth-century military engineers were not materially different from the devices employed by contemporary topographers and architects to design and survey existing or stake-out new structures. Basic drafting tools such as the compass, angle square and ruler or straightedge were described by Antonio Averlino Filarete2 and mentioned as well, along with the plumb bob and level, by Leon Battista Alberti3.
Although for many decades these were the primary instruments for designing or staking out new or surveying existing buildings, in the mid-sixteenth century new and more accurate measuring, surveying and stake-out tools began to be crafted.
Many of these instruments were designed and crafted by architects or engineers. Tiburcio Spannocchi, for instance, built an ingenious brass T-square. The second part of this treatise described a trammel used to draw ellipses9. El perfecto artillero. Proportional compass. Chest of mathematical instruments for Charles II. National Library Museum. Cultural Heritage Institute of Spain.
The collection included a book that served as both an instructions manual and a treatise on military architecture With the turn of the century, the proportional compass was gradually eclipsed by the graduated semicircle. He also described and explained the use of a graduated metallic circle with a straightedge bearing transoms to measure angles. He included a discussion of a straightedge with different scales applied for the same operations as performed with a proportional compass The Royal Ordinance and Code of 22 July for Teaching Mathematics at the Academy of Barcelona listed the instruments that were to be on hand at the academy for practical exercises: semicircles, quadrants with telescopes, levels, angle squares, bevel gauges, proportional compasses, plane tables and compasses, i.
Records have been conserved from the mid-eighteenth century of a series of instruments for the Artillery Academies of Barcelona and Cadiz. Shipped from London by manufacturer G. The manufacture and use of the more elaborate but equally popular proportional compasses and levels were described more fully The methods for laying out fortifications changed significantly in the late sixteenth century, concurring with a variation in the scale of fortifications.
As earlier fortifications were designed to be defended with artillery, their lines of defence were determined by cannon range. New siege techniques and every larger armies, however, led to the design of new fortifications to be defended at musket range, substantially shortening the length of the line of defence and ruling out forts based on the tenaille system except in very small structures.
He concluded by putting forward his own ideas, based on experience: feet for the curtain and for the bastion, although foot curtain lengths were acceptable. This shortening of distances was attendant not only upon the defence weaponry to be used, but also upon the belief that short-range defence was more effective and the respective fortification works less costly Fortification with four bastions.
He then outlined the basic models for triangular, square, pentagonal, hexagonal or heptagonal fortifications based on a regular polygon with sides measuring or feet divided into five parts, with the middle three serving as the curtain and the two outer parts as demigorges [FIG. The bastion fronts were defined by the line of defence rasant running between the end of the curtain wall and the outermost point of the flank, which was perpendicular to the curtain and measured 60 feet in triangular and 90 in all higher-order polygons He proposed a wall height of 45 or 46 feet over the horizon, including the six comprising the parapet This proportional fortification design, with the inner side of the polygon divided into curtain wall and demigorge, was the standard approach adopted in Spanish treatises in the first third of the seventeenth century.
Lastly, he defined the length of the bastion front to be two-thirds of the curtain or feet and their height to be 2 feet taller than the curtains For this author feet was the base figure, half of which for the curtain with foot flanks on each end, 30 for the casemate and 90 for its cover. Part 26 feet of the total 40 foot height was masonry and the rest 14 feet earthen construction This proportional approach to fortifications fell drastically out of favour in the sixteen forties when as a result of the revolts in Catalonia and Portugal, the defeats at Rocroi and Lens and the Peace of Westphalia, Spain lost its hegemonic hold on the continent.
The predominant models no longer drew from Italo-Spanish tradition but from Dutch and central European designs. The author described three ways to calculate the bastion or shoulder angle. He also provided tables for smaller fortifications, likewise as per Freitag and Dogen, and described outworks, specifically ravelins, lunettes, tenailles and crownworks. It had foot demigorges, foot curtains, foot flanks, foot casemate covers and a bastion front slightly shorter than half of the curtain.
While citing the methods used by other authors and using the division of the inner side of the polygon as a basis for design, he specified the dimensions of each fortification element, FIG. Note the pantometer in his left hand. Justification for this change lay in the prevalence of practical over theoretical considerations He established a system based on the range of musket fire, which he estimated to be to geometric feet.
On those grounds he took geometric feet as a basis to keep all distances within firing range. He then calculated the capital by drawing a line perpendicular to the radius from a point at two-fifths of the length of the side.
He found the sagitta for the midpoint of the curtain and used that distance to define the points on both sides from which to draw the line of defence rasant and bastion fronts. The flanks were established as perpendiculars to the inner side drawn from the transposition on the outer side of one-third of the inner35 [FIG.
The second method, angle-based calculation, was described from the outer side: the curtain and side of the bastion had fixed dimensions while all others were based on three methods for calculating angles. Mut also explained how to reduce these fortification models to smaller dimensions using a scales or proportional compass.
Lastly, he described outworks such as the ravelin, demi-lune, tenaille and hornwork and the fortification profile, lowering the height: after pondering the advantages and drawbacks of tall and low-lying structures, he opted for an intermediate measure: 20 to 24 feet over the horizon. He also listed 24 principles or.
Graphic systems for calculating fortifications. Arquitectura militar. Primera parte. De las fortificaciones regulares y irregulares, por don Vicente Mut, sargento mayor, ingeniero y cronista mayor del Reino de Mallorca, printed by Francisco Oliver, Mallorca, , first engraving.
In a treatise published in Brussels, Alonso de Zepeda put forward 22 maxims and a compendium of different seventeenth-century methods for designing fortifications, including proportional, angle-based and determinate systems, in addition to a number of more ingenious procedures, possibly of his own invention.
In the proportional method, he divided the inner side into six parts and used the resulting length for the demigorge and the traverse; the front of the bastion was drawn as the line running to the capital from the inner angle of the traverse in square and pentagonal fortifications, from one-third of the curtain in hexagons, heptagons and octagons, and from the midpoint in higher-order polygons.
A similar method was proposed in a treatise by Antoine de Ville With a compass, a circular sector measuring the same as the inner side was drawn over this angle. Its intersections with the three angles in descending order yielded the dimensions of the capital, demigorge and flank. In the third or determinate method, a proportional compass was used for adjustment to the other dimensions. The fourth procedure was analogous to the third, except that a scales instead of a proportional compass was used to adjust the other dimensions.
The fifth method was also proportional, taking one-third of the side for the capital, one-fifth for the demigorge and three-fourths of the latter for the flank, except in square fortifications, where the measure was two-thirds.
Zepeda also described a graphic approach in which the polygon half-angle was divided in three four in the pentagon and hexagon and the respective lines of defence and flank were drawn.
In the profile proposed, the height was 26 feet: 20 to the cordon and the rest for the 1. Brusforward an angle-based system for sels, Francisco Foppens. He proposed an unusual system for wall height, which rose with the number of sides of the polygon: from 15 and one-half feet for a four-bastion fortress to 24 for fortifications with over eight.
The parapets, measuring 4 feet on the outside and 6 on the in, were built over this wall It also contained tables for calculating all the section heights depending on the place to be defended and the angles. In plan the fortification was determined by the side, demigorge and traverse dimensions in each polygon, although the bastion front measured the same in all The wall.
An anonymous treatise entitled Escuela de Palas reviewed the works of all the major European writers, describing and building a total of 53 models, to which the author added his own at the end [FIG. In it he took a geometric foot line of defence as the core figure, in keeping with a musket fire range of The flank measured feet, except in squares, where it was The demigorge was the same as the flank and the distance between the inner and outer side was feet
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From the time of the Renaissance when engineers began to be spoken of until the specialization of the branches of engineering which took place in the 18th century, history has told us a lot about the uses these professionals made of drawing. Some fragments of this history are related in these pages, which are the result of a research project that seemed to be necessary because drawing was involved in all the studies carried out on the history of engineering in the Modern Age. This book is the result of the project. The collection Juanelo Turriano Lectures on the history of engineering is the ideal vehicle for publishing the results of this research, previously in the original language and now in English.
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