When a bodybuilder eats a hypercaloric diet, their goal is not just to gain weight, which could be both fat and lean mass, but rather to gain LEAN MASS. The strategies outlined here will help endomorphs gain lean mass, not fat mass. It seems that whenever someone writes an article about bulking a diet program geared towards gaining muscle mass it is directed either to ectomorphs or mesomorphs but ignores endomorphs. Why does this matter? Because the common strategies for gaining muscle mass written for ectomorphs or mesomorphs are not optimal for endomorphs.
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When a bodybuilder eats a hypercaloric diet, their goal is not just to gain weight, which could be both fat and lean mass, but rather to gain LEAN MASS. The strategies outlined here will help endomorphs gain lean mass, not fat mass. It seems that whenever someone writes an article about bulking a diet program geared towards gaining muscle mass it is directed either to ectomorphs or mesomorphs but ignores endomorphs.
Why does this matter? Because the common strategies for gaining muscle mass written for ectomorphs or mesomorphs are not optimal for endomorphs.
This is due to physiological and metabolic differences between these three phenotypes. The simplistic distinction between the three different phenotypes when it comes to body composition changes is:.
Ectomorph - naturally skinny and has a hard time gaining weight both muscle and fat. Mesomorph - naturally built and has the tendency to gain both weight easy but can also lose weight fairly easy. Endomorph - naturally heavy and has an easy time gaining weight more so fat than muscle and a hard time losing it.
If an endomorph was to follow the same "hardgainer" diet that is prescribed to an ectomorph they would definitely gain weight, but it would be a lot of fat. Endomorphs need to find a dietary balance that allows them to gain strength and lean mass without adding a ton of fat.
I would also like to put out that I do not like the term "bulking" diet. Some bodybuilders feel that they need to eat everything in sight to gain weight while bulking. I do not agree with that approach. Instead I prefer to call a diet geared towards gaining muscle a "lean mass" diet. One's body weight can be divided into two basic groups, fat mass and lean mass. Fat mass includes one's body fat stores adipose tissue while lean mass includes skeletal muscle, bone, and other organs.
I want to note that throughout this book when I talk about endomorphs I am referring to a person's natural phenotype and genetic make-up, not someone who is overweight or obese simply due to years of a sedentary lifestyle and overeating.
This book will discuss the physiological and metabolic causes underlying why some people gain fat easier than others and key dietary and exercise strategies endomorphs can incorporate to keep their bulking gains LEAN. The term phenotype is defined as "The observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism, as determined by both genetic makeup and environmental influences.
Ectomorph - Naturally skinny, narrow bone structure, has a hard time gaining weight. Mesomorph - Naturally built, broad shoulders, can gain or lose weight relatively equally.
There is a clear visible physical distinction between the three phenotypes, but what is not visible and often ignored is the biochemical and metabolic differences between the three phenotypes. I'm sure everyone has a friend that seems to have the ability to eat endless amounts of junk food and never gain an ounce of fat.
On the other hand, you may feel like you gain fat just from smelling cake or pizza. Why is your friend able to pig out and not and weight while you gain weight so easily?
It all comes down to the biochemical make-up of your body. One's biochemical make-up refers to the cumulative sum of all of its metabolic processes. Examples of such processes in reference to gaining fat include:. Lipolysis - The release of fat in the form of fatty acids from adipose tissue fat cells. Lipogenesis - The storage of fatty acids and accumulation of fat in adipose tissue. These four processes are all involved in regulating fat loss and gaining fat and are controlled by a host of other processes, which all work together to maintain a balance of homeostasis.
In order to create a diet that allows an endomorph to gain lean mass while keeping fat gains to a minimum, one must understand the principle metabolic reason that causes endomorphs to gain fat, insulin sensitivity and nutrient partitioning, which will be discussed in the next chapter. In order for a cell to acquire nutrients to use in energy production the nutrients must be transported across the cell's membrane.
The hormone insulin is used to activate the transportation of nutrients into cells and is considered the "storage" hormone. Insulin secretion causes the uptake of amino acids, free fatty acids, and especially glucose to be increased.
When one ingests carbohydrates their blood glucose level, also referred to as their blood sugar level, is elevated, which causes insulin to be secreted. It is insulin's job to return the blood glucose level back to a normal, homeostatic range.
When insulin is secreted, the breakdown of stored nutrients glycolysis, lipolysis etc. It would be counterproductive to breakdown stored glycogen to obtain glucose when glucose has just been ingested and is now in the bloodstream. This fact is important because when insulin is secreted, fat breakdown and oxidation is turned off!
Therefore when one wants to increase fat oxidation to its fullest, insulin secretion needs to be limited. The amount of insulin needed to return blood glucose levels back to normal after ingesting a given amount of glucose is called ones insulin sensitivity.
Individuals have differing insulin sensitivities based mainly on their diet, activity level, and genetic factors. In most cases, an ectomorph and mesomorph are more insulin sensitive than endomorphs; this is one of the primary factors that cause endomorphs to gain fat more easily than ectomorphs and mesomorphs.
An endomorph will need to secrete more insulin to shuttle a given amount of glucose into cells and therefore fat oxidation will be halted for longer than an ectomorph or mesomorph. Therefore, an endomorph needs to pay more attention to insulin secretion in order to keep gains lean. The body does not like it when glucose is floating around in the blood stream so after a meal the body increases the uptake and oxidation of glucose to get rid of it.
Over time, consistently elevated blood glucose levels can lead to cells becoming insensitive to insulin or insulin resistant, meaning more insulin must be secreted to return blood glucose levels to normal and therefore fat oxidation is blunted for longer which will be discussed in Chapter 4. If endomorphs must secrete more insulin to return blood glucose levels to normal then they are at a disadvantage when its comes to staying lean while bulking because fat oxidation will be turned off longer for them than an ectomorph or mesomorph and there is a greater chance for them to become more insulin resistant.
Before we continue I want to point out why there is great emphasis placed on muscle glycogen levels. Building new muscle proteins and adding inches to your arms is not a priority to the body.
The body will not create new muscle proteins when it senses it is in need of energy. When muscle has a lot of glycogen, the body senses it has enough "extra" energy and can build new muscle proteins effectively. If muscle glycogen levels are depleted, the body must replete glycogen stores in addition to increasing protein synthesis, both of which require energy and nutrients.
Therefore when gaining muscle is your goal you want to have adequate muscle glycogen stores so more energy can be focused on protein synthesis. Now this is an isolated examination of muscle growth because there are many other factors besides glycogen stores that govern whether one gains muscle or not. Let's take a deeper look at the metabolic factors affecting glucose uptake. Insulin promotes glucose uptake through the synthesis and translocation of the GLUT-4 glucose transporter, found on skeletal and cardiac muscle cells and adipocytes.
In the absence of insulin, the GLUT-4 transporters lay under the cell's surface. When insulin is secreted though, the GLUT-4 transporter translocate to the cell's surface allowing glucose to enter into the cell. There are other glucose transporters, but the GLUT-4 transporter is our primary concern. Enzymes are protein molecules that catalyze speed up metabolic reactions. In the case of glucose uptake, there are two we will examine:. The enzyme hexokinase is found in skeletal muscle and promotes glucose uptake independently of blood glucose levels.
Hexokinase has a high affinity for glucose, which allows muscle to take up glucose from the blood even when blood glucose levels are low. Once the muscle has the glucose, it keeps it for itself; the muscle does not release glucose back into the bloodstream. Insulin secretion further enhances glucose uptake in addition to hexokinase's actions.
The enzyme glucokinase is found in the liver and is activated when blood glucose levels are increased. Contrast to skeletal muscle, the liver is in service to all other cells of the body, so when it senses other cells need glucose it releases glucose and sends it to the other cells. Skeletal muscle holds on to its glucose for itself but the liver releases its stored glucose for other cells to use when they need it. Hexokinase is basically acting all the time to give muscle glucose but glucokinase is only acting in the presence of high blood glucose levels.
What does all of this mean? That you do not need to jack insulin through the roof for your muscles to get glucose, in fact, it gets even better.
Exercise, especially resistance training, has been shown to increase GLUT-4 translocation on skeletal muscle in the absence of insulin, meaning after your lift weights you do not need insulin for your muscles to uptake glucose. While insulin will certainly enhance the anabolic response of a meal post workout, slamming grams of dextrose pure glucose is not needed since skeletal muscle is already able to uptake glucose in the absence of insulin after a workout. Increasing the glucose content of skeletal muscle in the form of glycogen is beneficial for gaining muscle, but remember that GLUT-4 transporters also exist on fat cells and therefore insulin secretion promotes the storage of glucose in both skeletal muscle and fat cells.
Therefore, one needs to increase the storage of glucose in skeletal muscle and decrease the storage of glucose in fat cells; this can be done by consuming low glycemic carbohydrates such as oatmeal post-workout instead of high glycemic carbs like dextrose. In summary, it is not necessary to jack blood glucose and insulin levels through the roof in order to replenish glycogen and gain muscle.
Skeletal muscle is able to uptake glucose whenever it needs it. In addition, skeletal muscle is primed to uptake glucose after exercise. By maintaining your insulin levels you can gain lean mass while keeping fat gains to a minimum. Insulin not only controls the uptake of glucose into cells but also has an impact on fat oxidation and storage.
When blood glucose and insulin levels are low, fat is the main fuel burned for energy. But when blood glucose and insulin levels are high, fat burning is blunted and glucose oxidation is elevated. When the body senses there is glucose in the bloodstream, it wants to return blood glucose levels back to a homeostatic level. In order to do this the body must get rid of the glucose, which is accomplished by increasing glucose oxidation and storage. Since the body is focusing on storing nutrients, it would not make sense for fatty acids to be released from adipocytes because they would not be burned.
Therefore it is important that blood glucose levels return to normal quickly so the oxidation of fat can once again become the primary source of energy. This can be done by:. Personally when I first heard that there were types of fats that actually helped your body and helped you lose weight, I did not believe it. After doing a pretty good amount of reading and some research, I found out that it's true! In the presence of high blood glucose and insulin, HSL cannot act on stored fat.
Therefore, fatty acids cannot be liberated from fat cells and fat oxidation is put on the backburner while glucose oxidation and storage is made a priority. Insulin is termed an anti-lipolytic hormone because it blocks lipolysis - the breakdown of stored triglycerides fat into fatty acids.
In addition to blunting fat oxidation, insulin secretion stimulates fat synthesis in the liver and increases fat uptake by fat cells. After you eat a meal, dietary triglycerides TG are packaged within lipoproteins LPs in the liver.
Packing fat allows it to float better through blood.
What to know about the endomorph diet
Gaining quality mass as an Endomorph is not an easy thing to achieve. Here are ten tips you can use to make the most out of your next bulking season. As an endomorph, you need to be aware of your body type and adjust your diet to your specific needs. Following a cookie-cutter diet plan could lead to disaster if you implement a diet designed for an ectomorph with a high metabolic rate.
Bulking For Endomorphs - Gaining Muscle While Limiting Fat Gains
People with an endomorph body type tend to have a slow metabolism, making it easier for them to gain weight and harder for them to lose it. This also stunts muscle growth. However, following a specific diet and exercise plan can often help people with endomorphic bodies meet and maintain their health goals. People with an endomorph body type usually have soft, round bodies with a wide waist and large bones, joints, and hips, regardless of their height. This article covers what an endomorph diet is, including which foods to eat and which to avoid. We also discuss exercises that may help people with endomorphic bodies lose weight and build muscle. People with an endomorphic body may have characteristics and traits that make it difficult for them to diet, gain muscle mass, and exercise.