Absolute Maximum Ratings -O. Conditions conditions should be selected so that operation is always within the folJowing ranges:. Indicates type for which. These radiation tolerances are achieved by special process controls imposed during wafer fabrication. The specified levels of radiation resistance are verified per Table V group E subgroup 2 of Method and tested according to Method of Mil-Std Four electrically good packaged samples from each wafer, one from each quadrant, are exposed in a Cobalt 60 source for a time period corresponding to the specified total dose.
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These IC's are small building blocks with typical 4 logic gates or 2 flip-flops in a 14 to 16 pin plastic housing. To get a working calculator you need more than 50 of them. From that starting point the calculator race created every year new integrated circuits with higher complexity following the Law of Moore.
Working at another supplier of integrated circuits, the well known company Intel, Moore stated: Every three years the complexity of integrated circuits will double. The law is proved, within 30 years the complexity reached more than a million of transistors per integrated circuit.
In the meantime Texas Instruments stopped the production of integrated circuits for calculators. Most modern TI products use chips from Toshiba. View the calculator chips manufactured by Toshiba here. It's difficult to get information about the calculator circuits manufactured by Texas Instruments. The following table gives an overview of the known circuits, a brief description and the calculators using them.
This set of 3 integrated circuits was streamlined to the Pocketronic with its thermal printer. The second chip set supported displays instead the thermal printer of the Pocketronic. Two different Data Chips are known, the Arithmetic Chip was later replaced. This chip set consists of 6 integrated circuit, one of them was later replaced. Compared with the previous chip sets the trend goes toward single chip solutions.
This huge chip set was developed by the engineers of Compucorp and produced by AMI. The chip set forms one of the first programmable calculators, the Compucorp G Scientist. This rare chip set was found in October by fellow collector Miguel from Argentina in an Olivetti Logos desktop printing calculator.
The first commercial available "calculator-on-a-chip" was an MOS integrated circuit announced by TI in September 17, Find the original press release here.
The chip containes bit read-only program memory, a bit random-access memory and a decimal arithmetic logic unit as well as control, timing, and output decoders but no drivers for the display. This gives an overall complexity of roughly transistors.
It took about a year till the first copy of the original design appeared. The original single chip calculator was limited to basic calculators. The TMS added to the 8 digit mantissa a two digit exponent display but still uses external display drivers. There are some later single chip calculators using external drivers for the display.
One calculator, the Exactra 20 used only digit drivers, the segment drivers of the calculators were connected directly to the display. The TMS e. For desktop calculators Texas Instruments developed chip sets with two pin integrated circuits. With the TMC building blocks Texas Instruments created a novel architecture for scalable scientific calculators.
The architecture used minimum a 2 chip design with the Arithmetic chip and the SCOM scanning read only memory but was expandable to a maximum of 8 SCOM's, additional RAM as program memory for programmable calculators, additional RAM for general purpose registers and even a chip driving a printer.
Most scientific and programmable calculators from Texas Instruments between the years and SR TI use these chips. The following table uses only the more common TMC designations. They support either a memory or some enhanced scientifical functions. The chip contains a microcomputer complete with a program ROM having 1, eight-bit words; a temporary storage RAM: input from keypad ; output to control keypad scan and LED display ; and an oscillator clock. The TMS chip was designed to span a range of hand-held calculator products from four-function up through simple memory calculators.
Since the chip had to be customized with the ROM program appropriate to a product, other programmable features were included to improve the chip's flexibility. Today we know 13 different chips used in TI single-chip calculators. Calculator applications range from simple four-function calculators to the step programmable TI As of mid , over 35 million TMS chips were used in both calculator and non-calculator applications, establishing the TMS as the computer architecture with the largest installed base.
The internal clock rate varies from to KHz, depending on technology. With the TI and TI calculators Texas Instruments introduced March, the first calculators using a real single chip design.
Shortly before the introduction of the C-MOS technology in the year some chip-size optimized architectures appeared. Find more details in the description of the TMS Microcomputer family. In the year , with the SR and TI the first scientifical calculators using a real single chip design were introduced.
These calculators used a 8 digit LED-display, too. Together with a huge memory these chips have transistor counts of roughly 30, elements. Get more infromation about the synhesizer chips and their Speech-ROM's here. The first products used specialized calculator chips of the TMS family to manage keyboard and display of the product.
Even after you turn off the calculator its user memory is stored inside the chip. The supply current is low enough to buffer the memory more than a year from two small button cells. Remember that the first LCD-calculators sold by Texas Instruments used foreign calculator chips manufactured by Toshiba.
Get more information about them here. The derivatives were either numbered like TP, TP During the calculator war about to a lot of customized chip architectures appeared even from Texas Instruments. Only few calculators make use of the TP devices. Texas Instruments introduced with the TP architecture a new design to overcome these limitations.
It is still based on the TMS architecture but added time-keeping capabilities and a more flexible display driver. The TP is still gate-programmable. The Slave in the well known 28pin housing doubles the memory capacity of the calculator.
This allows e. The TP design was soon replaced with the TP and most designs were converted. The CD numbers were incremented 50 units to distinguish the difference between TP e. CD and TP e. We assume that the CD46xx nomenclature was used for original TP designs, they were discovered mainly in educational toys. In conjunction with the Master-Slave architecture some powerful calculators like the TI Galaxy or TI appeared with as much as programming steps or 16 data memories and even timer functions.
With the introduction of the TP we could close the history of calculator chips manufactured by Texas Instruments. The years between and brought us a lot of exciting calculator architectures driven by. According to the patent the ROM-size varies between 1k words and 4k words, the RAM-size seems to be between 56 and bytes.
One question is still open: Where are the programming steps of a TI stored? Before the real single-chip calculators appeared the LED displays were connected to digit drivers and on the first designs to additional segment drivers.
If you have additions to the above article please email: joerg datamath. No reprints without written permission. First Calculator.
First TI chip set produced for Canon Inc. Canon Pocketronic. Second TI chip set produced for Canon Inc. Canon L Third TI chip set produced for Canon Inc. Forth TI chip set produced for Canon Inc.
Canon LA. TMC18 First TI chip set produced for Olivetti. Olivetti Logos First TI chip set produced for Sumlock-Compucorp. Compucorp G. Second TI chip set produced for Olivetti. First commercial available single chip calculator. Complete single chip calculator family. Bowmar B. First single chip scientific calculator. Chip set for 12 digit calculators. Chip set for scientifical calculators. Second generation single chip calculators. Canon LE Third generation single chip calculators.
Chip-size optimized single chip calculator. Second generation scientific calculator.