American 3-A Sanitary Standards organization have many common goals and a similar mission. Both organizations exchange their draft guidelines and standards for expert review and comments before publication. More information. Assurance of quality and safety is an essential need for the continued good reputation of foodstuffs. The correct hygienic design and maintenance of food production systems is considered as a prerequisite to fulfill these requirements. In order to offer help to the industry in these questions, EHEDG has developed and published a variety of practical guidance documents on adequate hygienic design in different areas of food production equipment and machinery, as well as on the food manufacturing infrastructure.
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American 3-A Sanitary Standards organization have many common goals and a similar mission. Both organizations exchange their draft guidelines and standards for expert review and comments before publication.
More information. Assurance of quality and safety is an essential need for the continued good reputation of foodstuffs. The correct hygienic design and maintenance of food production systems is considered as a prerequisite to fulfill these requirements. In order to offer help to the industry in these questions, EHEDG has developed and published a variety of practical guidance documents on adequate hygienic design in different areas of food production equipment and machinery, as well as on the food manufacturing infrastructure.
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Second Edition, May - Pasteurization is a heat treatment aimed at reducing the number of harmful microorganisms to a level at which they do not constitute a significant health hazard. There are however many reasons why, in practice pasteurized products may present a microbiological health hazard. Due to the pasteurizer process design, the operation and control or inspection and maintenance of the pasteurizer there are a risk of unpasteurized or recontaminated product may reach the consumer.
This document provides guidelines to avoid these issues. Third Edition, July , updated June - The method is intended as a screening test for hygienic equipment design and is not indicative of the performance of industrial cleaning processes which depend on the type of soil. See Doc 15 for a test procedure designed for moderately sized equipment.
Second Edition, July - Food processing equipment may need to be sterilised before use, and it is important to ensure that the sterilisation method applied is effective. Thus, it is necessary to determine under which conditions equipment can be sterilised.
This paper details the recommended procedure for assessing the suitability of an item of food processing equipment for in-line sterilisation. It is advisable to conduct in-place cleanability trials see Doc 2 prior to this test in order to verify the hygienic design of the equipment. Second Edition, May - Sterilization is a heat treatment aimed at destroying all vegetative microorganisms and spores to create a product which can be stored at ambient temperature yet minimizing public health hazard.
There are however many reasons why, in practice sterilized products may present a microbiological health hazard. Due to the sterilizer process design, the operation and control or inspection and maintenance of the sterilizer there are a risk of untreated or recontaminated product may reach the consumer. Second Edition, July - This document details the test procedure for assessing whether an item of food processing equipment, intended for aseptic operation, is impermeable to micro-organisms.
Small motile bacteria penetrate far more easily through microscopic passages than non-motile moulds and yeast. The facultative anaerobic bacterium Serratia marcescens CBS The method is suitable for equipment that is already known to be in-line steam sterilisable see also Doc 5. This document describes the principles for hygienic design of equipment and factories intended for food manufacturing.
The fundamental reason for applying hygienic design principles is to prevent contamination of food products. Equipment and factories of poor hygienic design are difficult to clean. The document details the hygienic design principles that shall be followed when designing and constructing equipment and factories for manufacturing of foods.
It gives guidance on design, construction and installation so that it does not adversely affect food safety and quality. These principles apply to open and closed manufacturing operations, surrounding facilities, all being cleaned either wet or dry. The content of this document covers functional requirements, intended use, materials of construction, hygienic design and construction and assessment methods.
The main objective was to convey the reasons and requirements for hygienic welding and to provide information on how this may best be achieved. This document is superseded by Doc 35, recently published. The subgroup will continue with a guideline on inspection of the quality of welds in food processing machinery.
Second Edition, May - Using the general criteria for the hygienic design of equipment identified in Doc 8, this paper illustrates the application of these criteria in the construction and fabrication of closed process equipment. Examples, with drawings, show how to avoid crevices, shadow zones and areas with stagnating product, and how to connect and position equipment in a process line to ensure unhampered draining and cleaning in-place.
Attention is drawn to ways of preventing problems with joints, which might otherwise cause leakage or contamination of product. First Edition, March - Thermal sterilisation is a process aimed at eliminating the risk of food poisoning and, when used in conjunction with aseptic filling, it aims to extend product storage life under ambient conditions. This is achieved by the destruction of vegetative micro-organisms and relevant bacterial spores.
Liquid foods containing particulates are inherently more difficult to process than homogenous liquids due to heat transfer limitations in particulate liquid mixtures and the additional problems of transport and handling. This paper presents guidelines on the design of continuous and semicontinuous plants for the heat treatment of particulate foods.
Ohmic heating techniques are not covered. See also Doc 1 on continuous pasteurisation and Doc 6 on sterilisation of liquid products without particles.
Second Edition, May - It is important that the plant design takes into account factors affecting the hygienic operation and cleanability of the plant. The risk of contamination of food products during open processing increases with the concentration of micro-organisms in the environment and their opportunity to grow in poorly designed equipment.
This means that in open plants, environmental conditions, in addition to appropriate equipment design, have an important influence on hygienic operation. The type of product and the stage of the manufacturing process must also be taken into consideration.
This paper deals with the principal hygienic requirements for equipment for open processing and applies to many different types, including machines for the preparation of dairy products, alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks, sweet oils, coffee products, cereals, vegetables, fruit, bakery products, meat and fish. It describes methods of construction and fabrication, giving examples as to how the principal criteria can be met.
See also guidelines on hygienic design criteria Doc 8 , hygienic welding Doc 9 , and the hygienic design of equipment for closed processing Doc Second Edition, July - Valves are essential components of all food processing plants and the quality used strongly influences the microbiological safety of the food production process. These valves must therefore comply with strict hygienic requirements. The guidelines apply to all valves used in contact with food or food constituents that are to be processed hygienically or aseptically.
Aside from general requirements with regard to materials, drainability, microbial impermeability and other aspects, additional requirements for specific valve types are also described. See also Doc 20 on double-seat mixproof valves. First Edition, September - This paper identifies and defines critical design parameters for welded pipe couplings: easily cleanable in-place; easily sterilisable in place; impervious to micro-organisms, reliable and easy to install.
Gaskets of various types were tested for reliability and hygienic aspects using EHEDG cleanability test methods and repeated sterilisation. The objective was to provide a reliable dismountable joint which is bacteria-tight at the product side under the conditions of processing, cleaning and sanitation.
Third Edition, April - This updated guideline is meant to specify the technical requirements of pumps, homogenizers and dampening devices including their hygienic application in order to ensure a safe processing and production of food under hygienic conditions.
The requirements described in the guideline apply to all pumps intended for the use in safe food processing, including centrifugal pumps, piston pumps, lobe rotor pumps, peristaltic pumps, diaphragm pumps, progressive cavity pumps, screw pumps as well as to homogenizers and dampening devices.
Chemical surface treatments such as pickling, passivation and electropolishing can help to assure the successful functional and corrosion-resistant performance of stainless steels for product contact surfaces in the food and beverage industry.
This document explains the general principles of those three processes above: Why they are necessary, when and how they should be applied, how they work and which chemicals are used. Second Edition, June - Research has shown that hydrophobic membrane filters, with a pore size of 0. Investigations were conducted in risk assessment of sterilising hydrophobic membrane filters, evaluating the performance of the filters under a range of operating conditions.
To validate the bacterial retention ability of sterilising grade hydrophobic membrane filters, a bacterial aerosol challenge test methodology was developed. First Edition, July - This document describes the basic hygienic design and safe use of single-body double-seat mixproof valves. Today, food process plants incorporate various multifunctional flow paths.
Often one piping system is cleaned while another still contains product. This simultaneous cleaning can potentially result in the dangerous situation where product and cleaning liquid are separated by just one single valve seat.
Any cleaning liquid that leaks across such a seat will contaminate the product. Therefore, often two or three single seat valves in a "block-and-bleed" arrangement are applied.
Second Edition, March - Dry food processing and handling requires equipment that are different from those typically associated with wet and liquid products. This is the first in a series of documents that go beyond equipment design and covers installation and associated practices. In the case of dry materials, other considerations include material lump formation, creation of dust explosion conditions, high moisture deposit, formation in the presence of hot air, and material remaining in the equipment after shutdown.
Appropriate cleaning procedures are described, dry cleaning being favoured to reduce risks of contamination. Third Edition, September - This document is designed as a guide to the implementation and use of food-safe lubricants and lubrication practices. The document is suitable for use by audit companies and internal auditors and for this should be considered alongside suitable training also available from EHEDG.
Third Edition, September - This document is designed as a guide to the production, manufacture and supply of food-safe lubricants and lubrication practices. It is intended for use by lubricant producers but is also a guide for good lubrication practice for all industries.
First Edition, August - This guideline compares the design aspects of different mechanical seals with respect to ease of cleaning, microbial impermeability, sterilisability or pasteurisability. It can serve as a guide for suppliers and users of this important component. Both single and dual mechanical seals fall under the first two categories, which by definition, are subject to more stringent hygienic demands. General design criteria and basic material requirements for food applications are explained.
Materials covered include carbon-graphite, ceramics, elastomers and metals. Hygienic implications of seal elements and components are also discussed. Finally, installation requirements are described and illustrated, taking into account the product environment side, the flushing side and the cartridge design.
Since water treatments can be directly or indirectly part of the production process, this treatment should render the water microbiologically and toxicologically safe. Likewise, systems for storing and distributing water can involve hazards, which could cause water quality to fall below acceptable standards. It is therefore vital that water storage and distribution in a food manufacturing operation takes place in a controlled, safe way. This Guideline is meant to provide guidance on hygienic and safety related issues concerning water management sourcing, storage and distribution and provides recommended practices for two water categories used in the food industry: product water, and utility water.
Furthermore, it summarises appropriate practices for controlling Legionella in water systems. First Edition, December - This document addresses packing systems of solid food products and supplements earlier guidelines. Examples include fresh meat and some meat products, cheeses, ready meals, cut vegetables, etc. Hygiene requirements of the packaging operations, machinery as well as personnel, are described and reference is made to the American Meat Institute's principles of sanitary design.
See also Docs 3 and
European Hygienic Engineering and Design Group
Equipment manufacturers and engineers designing processing plants and process lines as well as corporate brands operate under strict safety standards regulating the food industry. EHEDG guidelines support members of the food industry in their efforts to ensure quality production and processing equipment for the safety of all food products. As an EHEDG authorized laboratory, we conduct comprehensive testing in regards to hygienic engineering and design standards and requirements established for equipment used in food production and processing. We have extensive experience in providing the food industry with expert testing and certification services.
EHEDG guidance document
The document details the principles that should be followed when designing and constructing equipment and factories for manufacturing food and also looks at issues surrounding equipment installation. The document explains why it is more effective to incorporate hygienic requirements into the initial design to help ensure food product safety. It can also help to increase the life expectancy of the equipment, reducing the need for maintenance, enhancing sustainability and lowering operating costs. This isn't a paywall.
3-A vs. EHEDG or also theoretical vs. practical
Experts estimate the time spent cleaning in the food and beverage industry to be as much as 30 percent. Thus, it is also understandable why the manufacturers attach great importance to a cleaning-friendly design hygienic design. But what do these symbols stand for and how can they be compared? The standards set are intended to ensure product quality and thus protect the health of the end user.