Second, the engler viscometer,viscosity determination main technical characteristics 1, the instrument for the desktop , one , two inner pot structure , inside and outside the pot all adopt stainless steel material , the inner pot inside after special treatment, its smoothness meet test requirements. Liquid by the external force in the resistance occurred between liquid molecules called viscosity. During the experiment , the sample should be a continuous linear flow. Fifth, the engler viscometer,viscosity determination structural characteristics of the instrument 1 , Reset button : Instrument chip computer control system reset button , press this button , single-chip computer from the initial state to start the program.
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Included is an overview of how the lab course is structured, lab scripts for all your introductory sessions and most of the experiments you'll do in the first two terms of lab materials for computing are published separately on Blackboard.
Handy guides on keeping a good laboratory notebook and how to write a lab report are also included. You will be issued a physical copy of the lab manual at the beginning of term 1. If you lose this then you should refer to the relevant sections you need for your lab sessions from the PDF below :. SlideShare Explore Search You.
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Energy engineering-lab-manual zaman-1 a 1. This is the first evidence of coal being deliberately dug from the ground, but it is quite possible that even before this, coal was used for fuel in some parts of the world.
Early man probably discovered it by accident, when he noticed that in some places the stones on which he built his fires would burn. Here peat is the most immature coal hence it is of the lowest rank whereas anthracite is the most matured coal hence of the highest rank.
PEAT Peat is included under this very first heading because it is the first stage in the formation of coal though if it is not deeply buried, it will never become coal from wood under the action of temperature, pressure and bacteria. Peat is brown in color and highly fibrous in nature. With increase in depth, the color becomes darker and finally black, when vegetable structure is not so obvious. The type of the peat usually dug for fuel consists of the partly decayed reeds and mosses growing in bogs.
Brown coal results from the first stage of alteration of the buried peat. It is brown and crumbly and can often be seen to be composed of decayed woody material.
It is always black and is made up of bands or layers which vary from bright and glassy to dull and sooty. It is hard and shows little sign of bending, but has a luster or shines rather like dull steel, and it breaks into skew-shaped blocks.
The results, except moisture, are usually expressed on the basis of percentage by weight of dry coal. Moisture: 5. Volatile Matter VM : The volatile matter represents the portion of a coal which is converted into volatile products when the coal is heated in the absence of air.
Because the proportion thus vaporized varies with temperature and time of heating, for comparative results the conditions of the test are standardized and are rigidly adhered to. ASH Coal ash is derived from clay, iron pyrites, limestone, sand and other mineral matter, all in a more or less finely divided form distributed throughout the coal in the seam, clay, shale or slate from the floor, the roof of the seam, or veins in the coal mass; and the inherent inorganic matter chemically combined with the organic matter of the coal.
Effects of Ash on coal: 6. Do you know what the relationship of mineral matter and ash is? Higher the fixed carbon content of the coal, higher will be its CV.
The fixed carbon is obtained by subtracting from the sum of the percentages of volatile matter and ash in the dry coal. This analysis gives the elementary constituents of coal and is useful to designer of coal burning equipment and auxiliaries.
Why do you think these analyses are important to be performed before the use of coal? When the effect of moisture on the analytical data is to be completed eliminate then the coal analysis is reported on dry —basis. For low ash coals mineral matters can be considered to be equal to this ash content. Hence, for high ash coal, the comparison of pure coal can be done if its analysis is reported d-m-mf basis instead of d-a-f.
In this, the effect of mineral matter is eliminated. It includes the moisture. It denotes the maturity of coal. It increases from peat, lignite, bituminous, anthracite. S in petri dish and weigh it. S In crucible whose moisture content has already been determined.
Initial rate of combustion is kept slow because some coal turned to spit or decrepitates. These frictions become apparent when a layer of fluid is made to move in relation to another layer. The greater the friction, the greater the amount of force required to cause this movement.
Shearing occur whenever the fluid is physically moved or distributed, as in pouring , or spreading, spraying, mixing etc. Isaac Newton defines viscosity by considering the model represented in the figure above. Newton assumed that the force required maintaining this difference in speed was proportional to the difference in speed through the liquid, or the velocity gradient. Its unit of measure is called the reciprocal seconds Sec I units: Pascal-seconds Pa.
The constant of proportionality is known as the viscosity. Drag forces depend on velocities. Velocity gradient perpendicular to the direction of shear, or strain rate [S-1 ] In common terms, this means the fluid continues to flow regardless of the force acting on it. For example water is Newtonian because it continues to exemplify fluid properties no matter how fast it stirred or mixed.
Typical Newtonian fluids include water thin motor oils, air, ethanol and benzene. All gases are Newtonian What this means in practice is that at a given temperature the viscosity of a Newtonian Fluid will remain constant regardless of which viscometer model you use to measure it. Newtonians are obviously the easiest fluid to measure —just grab your viscometer and go for it.
The subject of rheology is devoted to the study of the behavior of such fluids. High molecular weight liquids, which fine particles are suspended slurries and pastes are usually Non-Newtonian. In this case, the slope of the shear stress verses shear rate curve will not be constant as we change the shear rate Two Cases: Case 1: when the viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate, we call the fluid shear thinning. Shear-thinning fluids also are called Psendoplastic fluid.
Many Shear-thinning fluids will exhibit Newtonian behavior at extreme shear ratesboth low and high. Examples of Shear-Thinning fluids are polymer melt such as molten polystyrene, polymer solution such as polyethylene oxide in water and paints. Details of Case 2: Some slurries and paste exhibit an increase in apparent viscosity as the shear rate is increased. They are called Shear-Thickening or dilatants fluids typical plot of shear stress versus shear rate is shown below Viscoplastic fluid behaves like solids when the applied shear stress less then the yield stress.
engler viscometer, viscosity determination APEX-JCX516
The usual temperatures for determination of specific viscosity for tar materials are 25C, 40C, 50C, and C, and generally the temperature is so selected that the specific viscosity is not more than Englers viscometer which is efflux tube was developed in Germany. Note: At a temperature more than C, the water will boil. So we cannot perform this test at a temperature more than C.