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Rev Med Chile ; Spina bifida occulta associated with environmental arsenic exposure in a prehispanic sample from northern Chile. Background: The Camarones River Valley, located in the extreme north of Chile, is characterized by high environmental arsenic levels and an arid desert. It has been inhabited by humans for the past 7, years.

Evidence exists for chronic arsenic poisoning in both prehispanic and present populations residing in the area. Chronic arsenic exposure causes multi-systemic problems and can induce congenital malformations, in particular neural tube development defects such as spina bifda.

Aim: To study the prevalence of spina bifda among prehispanic mummies of the area. A diagnosis was considered positive when at least S1, S2 or S3 were affected. As controls, mummies of individuals that resided in Lluta and Azapa valley, with a low arsenic exposure, were analyzed. Results: The frequency of spina bifda occulta among samples from the Camarones coast and Lluta and Azapa Valley were Conclusions: Considering these were contemporaneous samples, and are believed to have had no other differences in diet or other factors, the differential exposures to arsenic could have produced the observed differences in spina bifda frequencies.

Key words: Arsenic; Mummies; Spina bifda occulta. La muestra control proviene del sector medio del valle de Azapa Azapa y el sector bajo del valle de Lluta sitio Lluta Se estima que, en la actualidad, alrededor de 8. Environmental health criteria for arsenic and arsenic compounds.

Geneva: World Health Organization ; Figueroa L. Castro M. En: Litter M. La Plata, Argentina ; p. Mansilla HD, Cornejo L.

Of , Agua Potable Parte 1: Requisitos, Guidelines for drinking water quality, Vol. Ginebra, European Union. European Union, Arsenic in the drinking water of the city of Antofagasta: epidemiological and clinical study before and after the installation of a treatment plant.

Environ Health Perspect ; Pathology related to chronic arsenic exposure. Health Perspect ; Chronic arsenic exposure and risk of infant mortality in two areas of Chile. Arsenic exposure from drinking water and birth weight. Epidemiology ; Posada J, Leyton V.

Santiago, Ediciones Universidad de Chile ; J Toxicol Sci ; Desesso J. Teratogen update: Inorganic arsenic. Teratology ; Fem V. Arsenic as teratogenic agent. Effect of arsenite, maternal age, and embryonic sex on spina bifda, exencephaly, and resorption rates in the splotch mouse.

Arsenicinduced alterations in embryonic transcription factor gene expression: implications for abnormal neural development. Developmental Genetics ; Neural crest anomaly syndromes in children with spina bifda. Reduction of birth prevalence rates of neural tube defects after folic acid fortifcation in Chile. Am J Med Genet ; A: Turkel S. Congenital abnormalities in skeletal populations. Reconstructions of Life from the Skeleton. New York: A. Liss ; The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Paleopathology.

Cambridge U. Cambridge University Press Ferembach JMM. Frequency of spina bibida occulta in prehistoric human skeletons. Nature ; Diseases of the Spine in South American Mummies. Neurosurgery ; 1: Diagnostic Med ; 5: Allison M. Castro M, Aspillaga E. En: Rothhammer F. Santiago, Editorial Universitaria Bass W. Human osteology: a laboratory and feld manual. Missouri, Archaeological Society Inc Buikstra J, Ubelaker D.

Standards for data collection from human skeletal remains. Arkansas, Archaeological Survey Research Series 44, Ubelaker D. Human skeletal remains: Excavation, analysis, interpretations. Washington: Taraxacum Arriaza B. An environmental hypothesis to explain the origin of Chinchorro artifcial mummifcation.

Radiographic method to assess the prevalence of sacral spina bifda occulta. Clinical Anatomy ; Barnes E. Developmental defects of the axial skeleton in paleopathology. University Press of Colorado Isidro A, Malgosa M.

Chacama J. En: Santoro C. Pueblos del desierto. Arica Chile ; 6: Santoro C. Caciques y control territorial. Arica Chile ; 7: Schiapacasse V, Niemeyer H. Murra J. Recibido el 18 de mayo de , aceptado el 11 de marzo de Fax: e-mail: vsilvap uta. Servicios Personalizados Revista. Figura 1. Sitio camarones 8 tumba a2. Figura 2. Pelvis articulada vista posterior.

Figura 3.


Vivir con espina bífida: Adultos jóvenes








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